T.R.Pugazhenthi 1, A. Elango2 , C. Naresh Kumar3 ,
B. Dhanalakshmi4 and A. Bharathidhasan5
Department of Dairy Science, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai – 600 007.
From a total of 2431 samples of milk and milk products analyzed at Chennai, twenty isolates of bacteria were identified as Yersinia species by theconventional biochemical method which includes nine Yersinia enterocolitica(0.37%), six Y. frederiksenii (0.25%) and five Y. kristensenii (0.21%).
The sensitivity pattern of six antimicrobial agents viz. ampicillin, chloramphenicol,ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, penicillin and tetracycline were tested against nineisolates of Y. enterocolitica. The invitro antibiotic sensitivity testing showedthat ciprofloxacin (5 mcg) and tetracycline (30 mcg) were the most effectiveantibiotics against Y. enterocolitica, whereas, penicillin (10 units) was the mostineffective one. Hence, analyzing the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity patternof Y. enterocolitica isolates from dairy products is essential.
Key words: Milk - Yersinia enterocolitica - antibiotic resistance
Associate Professor, Dept. of Livestock Products Technology, Instructional Livestock FarmComplex Campus, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tirunelveli-627 358.
E-mail : [email protected] Professor and Head, Department of Dairy Science, Veterinary College and ResearchInstitute, Namakkal – 1.
Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Nutrition * Part of the Ph.D. thesis of the first and corresponding author submitted to TANUVAS, Chennai.
Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 9 (2) 141 - 145, March - April 2013 Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of yersinla enterocolitica INTRODUCTION
emergence of microorganisms resistant toantibiotics currently used in human life.
of frequent occurrence in India, because of their MATERIALS AND METHODS
perishable nature and the tropical environmentalconditions prevailing in India. The genus Yersinia Isolation and identification of Yersinia comprises three well known food borne human species from aseptically collected 2431 milk and pathogens: Yersinia enterocolitica, milk products samples including 1410 raw milk, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. Among 185 pasteurized milk, 308 buttermilk, 113 khoa, these three, Y. enterocolitica is important milk 205 ice cream and 210 paneer from various borne pathogen and its presence in milk is of great zones of Chennai during different seasons were public health importance by causing yersiniosis, carried out as per the procedure of standard an emerging disease (Bercovier and Mollaret, methods for examination of dairy products 1984), which is characterized by gastroenteritis (Robert, 1992 and Bottone et al., 2005). Nine with diarrhoea, vomiting, fever and abdominal isolates of Y. enterocolitica were identified based on various biochemical tests as well asmolecular methods and were subjected to ubiquitous microorganism and majority of theisolates recovered from food are non pathogenic, it is important to determine the control measures Y. enterocolitica isolates (200 µl each) were on the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica by spread-plated onto Mueller Hinton agar (Hi antibiotics. Antimicrobials are used in food Media) aseptically. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern animals as therapeutic agents and as growth was determined by the disc diffusion method promoters. The use of effective drugs has been using commercially available discs ((M/s. Hi essential to guarantee the high indices of Media Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India) productivity reached in the last decades, with the following antibiotics with concentration propitiating a reduction of mortality and noted against each: Ampicillin (A) – 10 mcg, morbidity and the maintenance of animal well– Chloramphenicol (C) – 30 mcg, Ciprofloxacin being. However, the indiscriminate use of (Cf) – 5 mcg, Gentamicin (G) – 10 mcg, Penicillin antimicrobials can lead to the selection of (P) – 10 units and Tetracycline (T) – 30 mcg.
resistant bacteria in food animals that could Antibiotic discs were placed at equidistance in each plate and incubated at 250 C for 24 hrs.
serious public health problem (McEwen and The inhibition zone (including diameter of disc) was measured and interpreted as per the chartsof Kushal and Anand, 2001. Isolates were considered resistant if no zone of inhibition could pathogens is an important concern to the world be seen around the disc. The statistical analysis today. Use of antibiotics to prevent diseases was carried out as per the procedure adopted such as mastitis in cows may contribute to the Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 9 (2) 141 - 145, March - April 2013 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
These findings are in agreement with thestudies of Pham et al. (1991) and Lal et al. (2003) who reported that Y.enterocolitica was assumed as presumptive Yersinia species from a sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, total of 2431 samples of milk and milk products gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim and collected and analysed from various sources in resistant to ampicillin and penicillin. Statistical and around Chennai. Through various biochemical analysis shows that there was highly significant tests, 20 isolates were identified and confirmed difference (P d” 0.01) with regard to antibiotic as Yersinia sp. which includes nine Y. sensitivity pattern on Y. enterocolitica.
enterocolitica (0.37%), six Y. frederiksenii(0.25%) and five Y. kristensenii (0.21%).
The same was also confirmed by molecularmethods like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Bercovier, H. and Mollaret, H. H. (1984).
Genes XIV. Yersinia. In: Krieg, N. R.
(Ed.). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic All the nine Y. enterocolitica isolates Bacteriology, Vol. 1. Williams and
were tested for their susceptibility to various antibiotics and the susceptibility pattern of theisolates against these antibiotics were presented Bottone, E. J. (1999). Yersinia enterocolitica: in Table 1. All the Y. enterocolitica isolates overview and epidemiologic correlates.
Microbiol. Infect., (1): 323 - 333.
ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline atvarying levels. Ciprofloxacin (5 mcg) and Bottone, E. J., Bercovier, H. and Mollaret, tetracycline (30 mcg) were the most effective H. H. (2005). Genus XLI. Yersinia. as all the isolates were completely sensitive to In: Bergey’s manual of systematic these antibiotics and penicillin (10 units) was bacteriology, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2
the most ineffective as all the nine isolates were 100 % resistant to this antibiotic. Seven, six and five isolates of Y. enterocolitica were sensitivefor gentamicin (10 mcg), chloramphenicol (30 Kushal. R and Anand, S.K. (2001). Isolation, mcg) and ampicillin respectively. None of the isolates was resistant, though few isolates antibiotic susceptibility of Yersinia showed intermediate effect to gentamicin and enterocolitica isolates from milk. J. Food Sci. & Technol.,
3(2): 129 -134.
Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 9 (2) 141 - 145, March - April 2013 Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of yersinla enterocolitica Lal, M., Kaur, H. and Gupta, L.K. (2003).
Y.enterocolitica gastroenteritis - A prospective study. Indian J. Med.
Microbiol., 21 (3):186 - 188.
Pham J. N., Bell, S. and Lanzarone J. Y. M.
(1991). Antibiotic sensitivity of Yersinia McEwen, S.E. and Fedorka–Cray, P.J. (2002): Chemother., 28(1): 13 - 18.
animals. Clinical Infectious Diseases,
34: 93–10.
Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran,W.G., 1994.
Robert, M.T. (1992). Standard methods for the Statistical methods. 8th Edn. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, NewDelhi, India.
Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 9 (2) 141 - 145, March - April 2013 Antibiotic resistance profile of Yersinia enterocolitica
Particulars of antibiotic disc
Ciprofloxacin Gentamicin Penicillin Tetracycline
(10 units) (30 mcg)
Animal Sciences 9 (2) 141 - 145, Mar χ2 = 64. 67**
R – Resistant S - Sensitive I - Intermediate


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07_wils 29.33

A.N.Z.J. Fam. Ther., 2000, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp 29±33Specific Cases, Techniques and ApproachesStories provide one way to say the unspeakable. Drawing on systemic, constructionist and narrative ideas, this paper offersa commentary upon the development of a therapeutic story for a seven year old child and her mother. and Freedman 1990 and 1996; Dwivedi, 1997, Bowen &Robinson, 1999). Stories

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