Microsoft word - backyard_poultry_and_waterfowl.doc
Backyard Poultry and Waterfowl
John Chitty BVetMed CertZooMed MRCVS,
Strathmore Veterinary Clinic, London Rd., Andover, Hants SP10 2PH
o Free-range o Enclosures o Arks o Runs o Intensive housing? o Aviaries
o Artificial/ natural pond o Dishes? o Cleaning! o Environmental effects
• SECURITY IS IMPORTANT! • Sourcing birds
o Breeders – large and small-scale o Dealers o Sales – shows and commercial sales
o Ducks – pair. Monogamous?? o Geese – harem system o Swans – monogamous pair o Peafowl and poultry – territorial males gather harem
• In captivity poultry species bred for reduced seasonality and increased egg
o Nutrition, husbandry, laying site o Production rate o Male: female ratios?
o Devoice? Castrate? Hormone implants? o Management? Cull? Light? Time?
o Mature – physical characteristics and behaviour
o Rescues incl ex-layers o Consequences on life span?
o Infectious disease a big problem o Closed flock concept o Quarantine? Disinfection? Cleaning? Barriers?
o Enclose? Wing trim? Pinion? o Effects of territory?
o Poultry – commercial feed? Corn? Scraps? Free-ranging? o Waterfowl- commercial feeds? Grazing? Dabbling? o Life-stage diets?
o Texts – commercial poultry texts? Victoria Roberts? BSAVA? o Specialist/ hobbyist magazines ? o Keepers ? o Internet ?
o Triage ! o Phone call to clinic- assess urgency ; assess owner perception
• Important signs – altered droppings, anorexia, altered water consumption, altered
attitude, fluffed, reduced vocalization, altered respiration, weight/ condition loss, swelling, bleeding, vomition, ocular/ nasal discharges
• Bringing to the clinic • At the clinic – see quickly; keep in quiet place • Stabilization – warmth, dark, humidity, oxygen, nebulise • Examination
o assess breathing BEFORE handling o reassess when bird relaxes o assess condition, check discharge, auscultate, check vent + staining o weight vs condition!! o Abdominal swelling
• Fluids – UGA? Assess risk! Choose route • Samples
o Do PM’s As many as possible from the group o Sacrifice birds? o Storage/ transport of bodies
o In Spring consider Duck Viral Enteritis esp in Muscovies + their crosses o Many dead – few show illness first o Diphtheritic membranes pharynx and cloaca o Control methods
• Financial concerns – discuss with owner according to purpose of bird AND their
• Cascade applies – these are food-producing birds. MUST apply cascade rules and
o Licensed for that purpose in that species
o Licensed for another purpose in that species o Licensed for that purpose in another species o Use other drugs? o Anaesthetic agents? o REMEMBER – the license applies for formulation and dose rate!!! o MRLs
Always ensure your data sheet is up-to-date
STANDARD MRL – eggs = 7 days; meat = 28 days
o discuss issues with the owner and make sure they record medications o record instructions and label properly o record batch numbers, etc
• REMEMBER YOU ARE THE VET AND WILL CARRY THE CAN!!!! • Hospitalisation requirements
o Poultry vs waterfowl o Feeds o Biosecurity
o Newcastle Disease- PMV-1 o Respiratory disease +/- neurological signs o Egg drop o Death!! o Minimal signs? o How will you pick this up?
o Consider when pigeons show disease on same premises
o Consider the HPAI strains o Signs o Death! o Respiratory signs…then death o When to suspect? o Consider disease prevention plans o Vaccination?
• Access to soil • Faecal screen • Signs? • Therapy
Flagellates – Trichomonas, Hexamita, Histomonas
primarily poultry mite but will feed on any bird
• Clinical signs • typical history • Use of old poultry housing • Finding mites AT NIGHT!
• Environmental control essential • Possible? • Use
Primarily a poultry parasite but found on other spp
Differences in life-cycle cf Dermanyssus
Nymphs move to the plumulaceous barbs to moult
• typical signs
• long winding burrows
• feather bulb swelling
• skin scrape
• response to therapy
• NB – favus = avian ringworm is an important
• C. mutans
-feet/ legs - poultry
• Neocnemidocoptes gallinae
-skin – poultry
Burrowing mites stimulate hyperplasia/ hyperkeratosis
Diagnosis – scrapes, biopsy – appearance!
Chewing lice only - Mallophaga
o Consider -Viral disease, Mycoplasmosis, Irritant/ FB problems
o Common cause of URTD/ sinusitis o aka coryza o Signs o One eye or both? o Lameness? o Carrier state o Therapy? o Prevention?
• LRTD – les common. Bacterial/ fungal disease usually secondary disease.
o How many are affected o cf neurological disease o Causes of lameness –Trauma, Infection
• Joints, Feet, Tendons, Neuropathy, Rickets??
o Herpesvirus o Affects nerves – legs and wings o Clinical findings o Control
o All spp – esp waterfowl o Causes o Therapy
o Diagnosis o Therapy – systemic AB + NSAID: joint flushing
o Paresis/ paralysis o Incoordination o Distinguish from weakness!!! o Consider infections and toxins
• Soft/ deformed eggs? Can be normal at beginning or end of lay • Thin ADR bird
o Recent history of cessation of egg-laying? o Any age but often at beginning or end of lay
o Aspirate infected yolk o Memo…some yolk can be normal!!
o Broiler ascites o Ducks prone? o Genetic factors? o Diet? o Daignosis? o Therapy??
o Many affected? o Impossible to keep out? o Spread within group? o Human consequences?? o Signs o Diagnosis o Therapy?
o Poor prognosis o Oviduct or cloaca?? o Causes? o Therapy
LEY N° 19549 LEY NACIONAL DE PROCEDIMIENTOS ADMINISTRATIVOS . TEXTO ACTUALI ZADO CON LAS REFORMAS DE LA LEY 21686 PROCEDIMIENTOS ADMINISTRATIVOS TITULO I Procedimiento Administrativo: Ambito de aplicación. * ARTICULO 1°). Las normas del procedimiento que se aplicarán ante la administración pública nacional centralizada y descentralizada, inclusive entes autárquicos con ex
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