UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT NAIROBI JOINT MEDICAL SERVICE. Malaria. Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by a parasite and is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes (PlasmodiumAnopheles mosquito ). 25th April every year- is a day of unified commemoration of the global effort to provide effective control of malaria around the world-world malaria day. Facts about Malaria
• Over 60%of the world’s population lives in
• Malaria kills a child somewhere in the world
• It infects 350-500 million people each year,
killing 1 million, mostly children in Africa.
• Ninety per cent of malaria deaths occur in
• Over 30% of school absenteeism in Africa is
attributed to malaria and other illnesses.
• Malaria is both preventable and treatable.
• Early diagnosis and treatment saves life.
Signs and Symptoms of malaria These appear between 10 and 15 days after mosquito bites but may occur even after 60 days, they include:
Who is at increased risk for malaria?
• Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
• Pregnant women and their unborn children.
• Non immune persons while in malaria areas.
• People with lowered immunity such as in
HIV/Aids are usually worst hit by malaria.
• Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no
access to health care also contribute to malaria deaths worldwide
Prevention of malaria Use mosquito repellant nets-some chemicals such as permethrin which is a chemical used as a mosquito repellant sprayed on the clothes and mosquito nets.
• Permethrin 0.5 to 1% is available in various
chemists as over the counter medication which is effective for at least 2-6 weeks and may last for up to 1 year even through laundering if its concentration is higher such as in the already treated mosquito nets that last 1 to 4 years or in tablets used for treating mosquito nets.
DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-tiluamide) is also approved chemical for skin application on the exposed parts of the body such as hands, legs as a mosquito repellant which may last 4-6hours.Its available in 15-33% in chemists and major hospital pharmacies and offers 97% protection.
• When combined DEET and Permethrin offers
99.9% protection against mosquitoes. Among locally available brands includes: Mijex gel/spray and Mosout spray. These chemicals are not harmful to the body as they are poorly absorbed, and are rapidly deactivated -their rare side effects include itching, redness and dizziness. They should not be applied to the eyes, mouth or broken skin.
• Wear clothing covering most body parts while in
• Clear bushes, long grasses. • Drain stagnant waters.
• Use of insecticides to kill mosquitoes.
• All pregnant mothers should take appropriate
malaria prophylaxis when going to malaria areas as directed by the Doctor.
• Travelers should take prophylactic medication
when going to malaria areas-per your Dr.
• Seek medical advice for symptoms of malaria
For more information contact-UNON JMS at: [email protected] Sources www.malaria riskfactors:mayoclinic.com www-malaria WHO WWW-medicineNET.com www.malaria signs,symptoms,prevention and treatment www.malaria lifecycle www.Unicef health malaria www.CDC –facts malaria www.WHO 10 facts on malaria www.navy medical Department Pocket Guide to Malaria Prevention and Control www.permethrin.wikipeda-the free encyclopedia www.permethrin cream-topical side effects www.repellents www.permethrin 05905
Primary Tracheomalacia T h o m a s H . Cogbill, M . D . , Frederick A . M o o r e , M . D . , Frank J . A c c u r s o , M . D . , a n d J o h n R. Lilly, M . D . ABSTRACT Tracheomalacia is a rare congenital malformation of the tracheobronchial cartilages in cheomalacia have been seen at our institution which the supporting cartilaginous rings permit ex-over the past four years. The clinical sym
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