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5 Hargrove, J.W. (1993) Target barriers for tsetse
1 Moore, D.A.J. et al.
(2002) African trypanosomiasis
spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae): quick
in travelers returning to the United Kingdom.
estimates of optimal target densities and barrierwidths. Bull. Entomol. Res.
2 Vreysen, M.J.B. et al.
(2000) Glossina austeni
6 Hargrove, J.W. et al.
but it is based on the principle of one step
(Diptera: Glossinidae) eradicated on the island of
cattle for tsetse control: the power and the
at a time, dealing progressively with what
Unguja, Zanzibar, using the sterile insect
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Antimicrobial peptides versus parasitic infections?
Reports of antimicrobial peptides generally
can be used alone or to complement existing
have evaluations of their antibacterial and
Shiva-3, blocked Plasmodium berghei
antifungal activities. By contrast, little is
as chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium
ookinetes development in vitro
, and was
known of their activities against protozoan
effective against the early sporogonic stages
and metazoan parasites. In vitro antiparasitic
peptides mainly is exerted against bacteria
assays suggest that antimicrobial peptides
and fungi, but some antiviral and anticancer
demonstrated that a series of derivatives
could represent a powerful tool for the
effects have been described . In contrast
development of novel drugs to fight the
parasite in the vertebrate host, or to
antibacterial and antifungal activities, few
-infected erythrocytes .
complement current therapeutic strategies.
reports describe activities against protozoan
The first cysteine-rich cationic peptides
reported as active against Plasmodium
ineffective against eukaryotic cells as a
molecules widely distributed in plants and
result of their mode of action, and due to
with the development of Plasmodium
infectious microorganisms [1,2]. During the
oocysts, when injected into
past few years, studies on the components
isolated sporozoites in vitro
established the contribution of antimicrobial
against P. berghei
, two of the most widely
response of the invertebrate host .
(1) gambicin (8 kDa) from Anopheles
, which showed a slight in vitro
antimicrobial peptides have been isolated
Antimalarial activities have been described
scorpion Pandinus imperator
), which has
antibiotics of distant evolutionary species
for two classes of cationic natural antibiotics:
have provided the basis for simple models
(2) the cysteine-rich open-ended peptides.
of more complex animals such as mammals.
Cecropin and magainin, two linear α-helical
present a strong activity in vitro
the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia
and the skin of the African frog Xenopus
represent one of the most
, respectively, significantly reduced
used models for in vitro
provide design templates for anti-infectious
spp., when injected into
different anopheline mosquito species .
stages, represent potential
Development of antiparasitic drugs
A stronger effect against Plasmodium
candidates to help design novel drugs for
topical treatment of this disease .
of deaths around the world every year.
Cecropins isolated from different insects
showed a lytic effect on promastigotes ,
http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ – see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02389-9
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(1995) Effect of a
cecropin-like synthetic peptide (Shiva-3) on the
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peptides kill the parasite by altering the
of dermaseptin S4 derivatives. Antimicrob.
permeability of the plasma membrane.
fungal infections. The reported in vitro
A further leishmanicidal activity has been
activities of some antimicrobial peptides
11 Shahabuddin, M. et al.
: differential killing of some mosquito
stages of the parasite by insect defensin.
the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana
12 Vizioli, J. et al.
(2001) Gambicin: a novel immune
generation of drugs for topic or systemic
responsive antimicrobial peptide from the
synthetic derivatives display lytic activity
treatment of important parasitic diseases
malaria vector Anopheles gambiae
. Proc. Natl.
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against other protozoan parasites, such as
is a promising hope for the new century.
13 Conde, R. et al.
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and anti-bacterial agent purified from scorpion
. Cecropin is the only
14 Akuffo, H. et al.
critical revision of this article. This work
protein, cecropin A, differentially affectsnon-bacterial organisms such as Leishmania
reducing Brugia pahangi
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, and interfering with
peptides. Int. J. Mol. Med
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15 Chicharro, C. et al.
(2001) N-terminal fatty acid
substitution increases the leishmanicidal activity
of CA(1-7)M(2-9), a cecropin-melittin hybridpeptide. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother
Invertebrate antimicrobial peptides could
16 Hernandez, C. et al.
(1992) Functional and
structural damage in Leishmania mexicana
exposed to the cationic peptide dermaseptin.
1 Borregaard, N. et al.
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2 Salzet, M. (2001) Vertebrate innate immunity
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symbiotic bacteria to fight Trypanosoma
resembles a mosaic of invertebrate immune
cysteine-rich defense peptide from the spider
development in hemipteran hosts .
responses. Trends Immunol
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3 Zasloff, M. (2002) Antimicrobial peptides of
multicellular organisms. Nature
antimicrobial peptides of the tachyplesin family.
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4 Lehrer, R.I. and Ganz, T. (1999) Antimicrobial
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18 Chalk, R. et al.
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: the effects
degradation have been observed .
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defensins) are involved in modulating the
6 Rivas, L. and Andreu, D. Cecropins and their hybrid
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peptides as versatile templates in the development
20 Salzet, M (2002) Antimicrobial peptides are
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signaling molecules. Trends Immunol
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Update 2 - January 2013 Captain J J Murphy MC*, DCM Captain John Joseph Murphy MC*, DCM, one of the most decorated officers to serve with the 9th Royal Irish Fusiliers, joined the Battalion on 16 September 1917. He was removed from command of B Company in October 1918, having been accused of being drunk by the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel P E Kelly.1 It was only just prior to
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