Pii: s1471-4922(02)02428-5

Research Update
TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.11 November 2002 References
5 Hargrove, J.W. (1993) Target barriers for tsetse 1 Moore, D.A.J. et al. (2002) African trypanosomiasis flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae): quick in travelers returning to the United Kingdom.
estimates of optimal target densities and barrierwidths. Bull. Entomol. Res. 83, 197–200 2 Vreysen, M.J.B. et al. (2000) Glossina austeni 6 Hargrove, J.W. et al. (2000) Insecticide-treated but it is based on the principle of one step (Diptera: Glossinidae) eradicated on the island of cattle for tsetse control: the power and the at a time, dealing progressively with what Unguja, Zanzibar, using the sterile insect problems. Med. Vet. Entomol. 14, 123–130 is technically feasible within the constraints technique. J. Econ. Entomol. 93, 123–135 3 Schofield, C.J. and Dias, J.C.P. (1999) The John P. Kabayo
Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.
PATTEC Co-ordination Office, Organisation of African Unity, PO Box 200032, Addis Ababa, 4 Muzari, M.O. (1999) Odour-baited targets as invasion barriers for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae): a field trial in Zimbabwe. Bull. Entomol. Res. 89, 73–77 Antimicrobial peptides versus parasitic infections?
Reports of antimicrobial peptides generally
can be used alone or to complement existing have evaluations of their antibacterial and
Shiva-3, blocked Plasmodium berghei antifungal activities. By contrast, little is
as chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium.
ookinetes development in vitro, and was known of their activities against protozoan
effective against the early sporogonic stages and metazoan parasites. In vitro antiparasitic
peptides mainly is exerted against bacteria assays suggest that antimicrobial peptides
and fungi, but some antiviral and anticancer demonstrated that a series of derivatives could represent a powerful tool for the
effects have been described [6]. In contrast development of novel drugs to fight the
parasite in the vertebrate host, or to
antibacterial and antifungal activities, few Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes [10].
complement current therapeutic strategies.
reports describe activities against protozoan The first cysteine-rich cationic peptides reported as active against Plasmodium ineffective against eukaryotic cells as a molecules widely distributed in plants and result of their mode of action, and due to with the development of Plasmodium infectious microorganisms [1,2]. During the gallinaceum oocysts, when injected into past few years, studies on the components isolated sporozoites in vitro [11]. Activities established the contribution of antimicrobial against P. berghei developmental stages Leishmania, two of the most widely response of the invertebrate host [3].
(1) gambicin (8 kDa) from Anopheles gambiae, which showed a slight in vitro antimicrobial peptides have been isolated Antimalarial activities have been described scorpion Pandinus imperator), which has antibiotics of distant evolutionary species for two classes of cationic natural antibiotics: have provided the basis for simple models (2) the cysteine-rich open-ended peptides.
of more complex animals such as mammals.
Cecropin and magainin, two linear α-helical present a strong activity in vitro against the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia and the skin of the African frog Xenopus Leishmania represent one of the most laevis, respectively, significantly reduced used models for in vitro antiparasitic provide design templates for anti-infectious Plasmodium spp., when injected into different anopheline mosquito species [7].
Leishmania stages, represent potential Development of antiparasitic drugs
A stronger effect against Plasmodium was candidates to help design novel drugs for topical treatment of this disease [6].
of deaths around the world every year.
Cecropins isolated from different insects showed a lytic effect on promastigotes [14], http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ – see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02389-9 Research Update
TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.11 November 2002 Conclusion
9 Rodriguez, M.C. et al. (1995) Effect of a cecropin-like synthetic peptide (Shiva-3) on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei.
Exp. Parasitol
. 80, 596-604 10 Krugliak, M. et al. (2000) Antimalarial activities peptides kill the parasite by altering the of dermaseptin S4 derivatives. Antimicrob. permeability of the plasma membrane.
fungal infections. The reported in vitro A further leishmanicidal activity has been activities of some antimicrobial peptides 11 Shahabuddin, M. et al. (1998) Plasmodium gallinaceum: differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin.
the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana [17].
12 Vizioli, J. et al. (2001) Gambicin: a novel immune generation of drugs for topic or systemic responsive antimicrobial peptide from the synthetic derivatives display lytic activity treatment of important parasitic diseases malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
98,12630–12635 against other protozoan parasites, such as is a promising hope for the new century.
13 Conde, R. et al. (2000) Scorpine, an anti-malaria Trypanosoma, Trichomonas or and anti-bacterial agent purified from scorpion Cryptosporidium [6]. Cecropin is the only Acknowledgements
14 Akuffo, H. et al. (1998) Drosophila antibacterial critical revision of this article. This work protein, cecropin A, differentially affectsnon-bacterial organisms such as Leishmania in a reducing Brugia pahangi microfilariae motility in vitro, and interfering with peptides. Int. J. Mol. Med. 1, 77–82 15 Chicharro, C. et al. (2001) N-terminal fatty acid substitution increases the leishmanicidal activity of CA(1-7)M(2-9), a cecropin-melittin hybridpeptide. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45, Transgenic expression
Invertebrate antimicrobial peptides could 16 Hernandez, C. et al. (1992) Functional and structural damage in Leishmania mexicana References
exposed to the cationic peptide dermaseptin.
1 Borregaard, N. et al. (2000) Innate immunity: from transmission of vector-borne diseases, as plants to humans. Immunol. Today 21, 68–70 17 Silva, P.I. et al. (2000) Isolation and 2 Salzet, M. (2001) Vertebrate innate immunity characterization of gomesin, an 18-residue symbiotic bacteria to fight Trypanosoma resembles a mosaic of invertebrate immune cysteine-rich defense peptide from the spider development in hemipteran hosts [19].
responses. Trends Immunol. 22, 285–288 Acanthoscurria gomesiana hemocytes with 3 Zasloff, M. (2002) Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature 415, 389–395 antimicrobial peptides of the tachyplesin family.
present a low toxicity for vertebrate cells, 4 Lehrer, R.I. and Ganz, T. (1999) Antimicrobial peptides in mammalian and insect host defense.
18 Chalk, R. et al. (1995) Brugia pahangi: the effects in vivo degradation have been observed [6].
of cecropins on microfilariae in vitro and in 5 Hancock, R.E. (2000) Cationic antimicrobial Aedes aegypti. Exp. Parasitol. 80, 401–406 peptides: towards clinical applications. Expert. 19 Beard, C.B. et al. (2001) Bacterial symbiosis and Opin. Investig. Drugs 9, 1723–1729 paratransgenic control of vector-borne Chagas defensins) are involved in modulating the 6 Rivas, L. and Andreu, D. Cecropins and their hybrid disease. Int. J. Parasitol. 31, 620–626 peptides as versatile templates in the development 20 Salzet, M (2002) Antimicrobial peptides are of membrane-active antibiotic agents. In: signaling molecules. Trends Immunol. 23, Pore-forming Peptides and Protein Toxins. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Toxin Action. (Menestrina, G. and Lazzarovici, P. eds) Jacopo Vizioli
7 Gwadz, R.W. et al. (1989) Effects of magainins and Michel Salzet*
for the development of novel antiparasitic cecropin on the sporogonic development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes. Infect. Immun. 57, 8 Boman, H.G. et al. (1989) Antibacterial and antimalarial properties of peptides that are de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.
cecropin-melittin hybrids. FEBS Lett. 259, 103–106 Claim your FREE online access to Trends in Parasitology
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Update 2 - January 2013 Captain J J Murphy MC*, DCM Captain John Joseph Murphy MC*, DCM, one of the most decorated officers to serve with the 9th Royal Irish Fusiliers, joined the Battalion on 16 September 1917. He was removed from command of B Company in October 1918, having been accused of being drunk by the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel P E Kelly.1 It was only just prior to


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