war resisters’ international
internationale des résistant(e)s á la guerre

internationale der kriegsdienstgegner/innen
internacional de resistentes a la guerra
internacio de militrezistantoj
5 Caledonian Road, London N1 9DX, Britain
A military constitution for
the European Union?

Or: The European Union too is on a course
towards war

This text was written by Tobias Pflüger from the German-based Informationsstelle
Militarisierung. It analyses the draft EU constitution, and proposes a European campaign
against the European Constitution. This text is important, as it highlights the appalling
development of a military Europe, which will mainly mirror the United States of America. A
German language version is available on the WRI website, and on the website of the
Informationsstelle Militarisierung. Other language version will be made available soon. (War
Resisters' International)

governments convened to revise the Treaties, 17/09/03) After a long time the so-called European Convention The European Commission describes the significance produced a draft for a EU Constitution, which consists of foreign and security policy as follows: “The of 260 pages, divided into four chapters. Added to the Convention examined closely the provisions on the draft constitution are several appendices of additional Union’s external action and the area of freedom, agreements, which will also be part of the constitution.
security and justice. It produced draft articles The EU Constitution can be read or downloaded at completely rewriting the originals. As far as the other
policies are concerned, the Convention confined itselfto reproducing the provisions currently featuring in On the significance of military policy within the EU draft
the EC Treaty, with only a few alterations.” In the constitution
same document, the content of the EU draft The so-called “Common Foreign and Security Policy” constitution is described as follows: “. it revamps the (CFSP) and the “European Security and Defence provisions concerning the common foreign and Policy” (ESDP) take up a lot of space and are central security policy; it develops the common security and to the draft. The regulations regarding the military defence policy and enables those Member States policy are very concrete and go into a lot of detail. The wishing to do so to enhance their capacity for action EU Commission itself comments: “Finally, by virtue of the fact that it replaces all the provisions of the currentTreaties and, in particular, rewrites the provisions on EU integration through common military policy?!
external action and the area of freedom, security and The draft constitution explicitly states: “The Union justice, while adopting the Treaty provisions on shall have competence to define and implement a policies wholesale, the draft Constitution has common foreign and security policy, including the inevitably become a lengthy and fairly detailed progressive framing of a common defence policy.document.” (Opinion of the Commission, pursuant to (Article I-11, paragraph 4; it is similar in article I-15, Article 48 of the Treaty on European Union, on the paragraph 1.) Article I-40 paragraph 2 clarifies the Conference of representatives of the Member States’ steps that need to be taken: “The common security and Chair: Joanne Sheehan (U.S.A) Treasurer: Bart Horeman (Netherlands)
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defence policy shall include the progressive framing of and defence policy, to contribute to the objectives a common Union defence policy. This will lead to a defined by the Council of Ministers. Those Member common defence, when the European Council, acting States which together establish multinational forces unanimously, so decides.” There will be such a thing as may also make them available to the common security a duty of loyalty within the European Union. Article I- and defence policy.” (Article I-40, paragraph 3). It is 15, paragraph 2 reads: “Member States shall actively again unique that readiness for military interventions and unreservedly support the Union's common foreign world-wide gets the status of a constitutional duty. EU and security policy in a spirit of loyalty and mutual troops will be used as “combat forces in crisis solidarity and shall comply with the acts adopted by management, including peacemaking and post-conflict the Union in this area. They shall refrain from action stabilisation.” (Article III-210). It goes on, “[a]ll these contrary to the Union's interests or likely to impair its tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism, effectiveness.” As long as there is no decision of the including by supporting third countries in combating European Council on “security policy”, individual terrorism in their territories.” (Article III-210). This is member states of the EU who, regarding their military, an extremely broad mandate for potential EU military “have made more binding commitments to one operations. It even allows for the EU to intervene in a another” may established a “structured cooperation civil war on the side of one or other faction, and to within the Union framework”, according to Article I- influence the outcome of the war militarily, justified by 40, paragraph 6 (more below under Council of the “fight against terrorism”. Any limitations for such Ministers decides on its own). If this constitution is extra-territorial EU military operations remain passed, then member states won't have the power to block the developing common military policy. If thisdraft EU constitution becomes reality the common Codification of the concept of core Europe
military policy of the European Union will play a – if Article 40 paragraph 6 of the draft constitution says: not the – central role in the process of the integration “Those Member States whose military capabilities of the enlarged EU of 25 member states. In particular, fulfil higher criteria and which have made more the regulations on competences (especially Article I- binding commitments to one another in this area with 11) or on general obligations (Article I-15) highlight a view to the most demanding missions shall establish this aspect. Additionally, the common military policy is structured cooperation within the Union framework.” one – if not the – central (new) element of this draft of This means that individual member states, which “have made more binding commitments to one another”, cancreate permanent common military structures. Article I- Commitment to armament in the constitution
40 paragraph 7 defines more concretely what Jacques Regarding peace or military policy, the draft Chirac has described once as an advance team such as constitution includes dramatic new regulations. There at the tour de France: “Until such time as the European is an explicit commitment to armament in the Council has acted in accordance with paragraph 2 of constitution: “Member States shall undertake this Article, closer cooperation shall be established, in progressively to improve their military capabilities.the Union framework, as regards mutual defence.” (Article I-40, paragraph 3) This means engraved in the This translates into the area of the military what future constitution is a commitment to regular German Foreign Minister Joshka Fischer described in a increases in armaments! A “European Armaments, speech at the Humboldt University on 12 May 2000 in Research and Military Capabilities Agency” will be set Berlin (From Confederacy to Federation - Thoughts on up “to identify operational requirements, to promote the finality of European integration). There he talked measures to satisfy those requirements, to contribute about an “avant-garde” Europe, about a “centre of to identifying and, where appropriate, implementing gravity” within the EU, but the older term of a “core any measure needed to strengthen the industrial and Europe” coined by Wolfgang Schäuble and Karl technological base of the defence sector, to participate Lamers is more to the point. It remains open how this in defining a European capabilities and armaments closer military cooperation within the union framework policy, and to assist the Council of Ministers in could be slowed down or prevented by other EU evaluating the improvement of military capabilities.” (Article I-40, paragraph 3). Regarding the This so called “structured cooperation” in the area of “improvement of military capabilities” and the military policy is something like an exclusive club “evaluating the improvement of military capabilities” within the EU: Article III-213 paragraph 3 reads: the constitution explicitly defines commitments! “When the Council of Ministers adopts Europeandecisions relating to matters covered by structured EU troops all over the world? Combat operations
cooperation, only the members of the Council of (including abroad) in the constitution!
Ministers that represent the Member States taking part The EU member states provide military contingents for in structured cooperation shall participate in the the EU military policy: “Member States shall make deliberations and the adoption of such decisions. The civilian and military capabilities available to the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall attend the Union for the implementation of the common security deliberations. The representatives of the other Member States shall be duly and regularly informed by the necessary, robust intervention.” “If we are serious Union Minister for Foreign Affairs of developments in about new threats and about creating more flexible structured cooperation.” It is absolutely unclear how mobile forces we need to increase defence resources.” other member states of the EU could slow down or (Note: it doesn't say “if the new threats are serious”, it block this closer military cooperation. For those EU says “if we are serious about new threats.”!) “In a countries that are officially still neutral – Finland, world of global threats, global markets and global Ireland, Austria, and Sweden – there are more media, our security and prosperity depend on an problems. The EU constitution includes several explicit effective multilateral system.” Solana concludes: “This regulations for cooperation with NATO, for example in is a world in which there are new dangers but also Article I-40, paragraph 7: “In the execution of closer new opportunities. If it can become a fully effective cooperation on mutual defence, the participating actor, the European Union has the potential to make a Member States shall work in close cooperation with major contribution, both to dealing with the threats the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.” This means and to helping realise the opportunities. An active and that the fear that the ratification of the EU constitution capable European Union would make an impact on a by non-NATO members in fact means a “NATO global scale. In doing so, it would contribute to an membership light” is not unjustified.
effective multilateral system leading to a fairer andmore secure world.” This is a call to battle against the Council of ministers decides on its own – no
“unilateral world order” with the USA as the single involvement of parliament
world power, as promoted by the US and UK The draft EU constitution stresses several times that governments. The European Union is to become the Council of Ministers is alone responsible for EU something like the second world power in a military policy. Translated into plain English, Article I- 40 rules that the Council of Ministers will takedecisions on EU military operations. This is effectively The EU too wants to fight “preventive wars”
repeated in Article III-198 paragraph 1: “Where the The Solana paper also codifies the concept of international situation requires operational action by preventive wars. “In an era of globalisation, distant the Union, the Council of Ministers shall adopt the threats may be as much a concern as those that are necessary European decisions.” The EU parliament near at hand. Nuclear activities in North Korea, won't take part in this. Paragraph 8 of Article 40 says nuclear risks in South Asia, and proliferation in the only that the EU parliament shall be consulted Middle East are all of concern to Europe.” And: “Our regularly on the “main aspects”, and shall be kept traditional concept of self-defence - up to and informed on the development “and basic choices of the including the Cold War - was based on the threat of common security and defence policy”. This is dealt invasion. With the new threats the first line of defence with more precisely in Article 205 paragraph 1.
will often be abroad. The new threats are dynamic. Paragraph 2 says: “The European Parliament may ask Left alone, they will become more dangerous. [.] This questions of the Council of Ministers and of the Union implies that we should be ready to act before a crisis Minister for Foreign Affairs.” But the duty to inform occurs.” This transfers the core element of the USA parliament does not mean that parliament has the right National Security Strategy, also called the “Bush doctrine”, to Europe, and codifies it for the EuropeanUnion. The bombing campaign of the war against Iraq Javier Solana's EU military strategy: The EU as a military
was a test for this concept of preventive wars (i.e.
actor all over the world in a multilateral system
Financial Times Deutschland, 19 March 2003). By On behalf of the EU's heads of government, Javier now, Western militaries and governments seem to Solana, the EU's High Representative for Common regard the preventive war concept as a recipe for Foreign and Security Policy, drafted a paper on EU success. The wording of the preventive war concept in strategy in military matters. All EU heads of Solana's paper shows that there is no difference government welcomed this military strategy paper at between the USA and the EU in terms of quality – the EU Summit in principle. “This paper proposes there is in terms of quantity – regarding their far- three strategic objectives for the European Union. reaching military policy. Many, including governments First, we can make a particular contribution to in “old Europe”, like to criticise the US government stability and good governance in our immediate and its methods, but precisely these EU governments – neighbourhood. Second, more widely, we need to build including the German social democrat/green coalition an international order based on effective – very much like to take these methods, such as the multilateralism. Finally, we must tackle the threats, preventive war concept, on board. They do this for new and old.” For this, the European Union mainly example with the new EU military strategy.
focusses on its (new) military strength: “As a Union of25 members, spending a total of 160 billion Euros on The fight for the good in the world – or where is the
defence, we should, if required, be able to sustain problem, in the South or in the West?
several operations simultaneously. We need to develop The Solana paper names the three main threats as seen a strategic culture that fosters early, rapid, and when by EU governments: “Taking these different elements together - terrorism committed to maximum violence, Proposal for a campaign against the EU Constitution, to
the availability of weapons of mass destruction and the campaign against the militarisation of the European
failure of state systems - we could be confronted with a very radical threat indeed.” Only joint action would The Informationsstelle Militarisierung therefore help against those threats. The goal of EU policy is proposes to initiate a campaign against this European stated openly and very clearly, even if you have to read constitution. The EU constitution is the result of a it several times to believe that it is really written into mistaken policy of the governments of the European the military strategy of the EU: “[.] Acting together, Union. Regarding the military, the EU draft the European Union and the United States can be a constitution is appalling, and this constitution has to be formidable force for good in the world.” Together for opposed. A campaign against the EU constitution “good in the world”, against all “evil”? For whom this could be set up by groups from the peace and anti-war “good” will be good is obvious. It all is about as much movement, from the anti-globalisation movement, power, influence, and economic expansion of Western groups working against welfare cuts and those working states as possible. The Western states agree on the core with refugees. A campaign against the EU constitution issues, with differences in details (Iraq): more could be carried out in cooperation, across borders, armament and the development of military forces that among groups from different EU countries. This draft are able to fight wars. The wars of the future will be EU constitution is not a constitution for the people.
fought with permanently changing coalitions, and not This draft EU constitution is not our constitution! everyone will join in every time. But the wars willhappen, against countries and people in the South. The analysis which is behind the draft EU constitution and The draft European Constitution: http://www.european- the Solana paper sees the problem in the South, in the “failed states”. The draft EU constitution explicitly European Commission: Opinion of the Commission, pursuant to codifies neo-liberal economic policy which leads to Article 48 of the Treaty on European Union, on the Conferenceof representatives of the Member States’ governments convened pauperisation world-wide. Obviously, the problem is not in the South but in the West. The policy of the Western states has to be changed fundamentally. The Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign present neo-liberal and neo-imperialist policy of the and Security Policy: A Secure Europe in a Better World: EU states – two sides of the same coin – should not be Fischer: From Confederacy to Federation - Thoughts on codified as part of the future constitution of the the finality of European integration, 12 May 2000, Informationsstelle Militarisierung e.V.
War Resisters' International


Paying respect

Forthcoming in Journal of Economic Perspectives Tore Ellingsen is the Ragnar Söderberg Professor of Economics and Magnus Johannesson is Professor of Economics, both at the Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden. Their e-mail addresses are < JEL classification: D01, D23, D82, Z13 Keywords: Esteem, Incentives, Recognition, Personnel economics. Why do people work? Economic theory

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