GUIDE FOR SELECTION AND USE OF
Using Table 1, a list of respiratory protective devices shows the type of equipment which meets the minimum requirement
of the protection factor of 50 if used correctly. This applies
It is the purpose of this brochure to show how people can
e.g. for a half mask plus P3 ﬁ lter.
be protected against health risks ensuing from harmful sub-
1)Values and terms of calculation have been taken from CEN report 529. Ad-
stances in the ambient atmosphere and how they can select
ditional national and local regulations must be followed.
The selection of the respirator is dependent on the
The maximum allowed concentration of contami-
nature and extent of the hazard, the work requirements and
nant with full face mask and B2 ﬁ lter?
conditions, and the characteristics and limitations of the respi-
0.5 ppm (MAK according to German regulations)
The following circumstances have to be checked ﬁ rstly:• What are the contaminates?
Full face mask gives a nominal protection factor of 2000.
Full face mask + B2 ﬁ lter gives a nominal protection factor of
• What is the applicable Occupational Exposure Level
• Are the contaminants gaseous or particulate or a combina-
2000 x 0.5 ppm = 1000 ppm = 0.1% chlorine by volume.
• Do the contaminants have adequate warning properties of
The same method is used either for particulate or gaseous
• Are the contaminants immediately dangerous to life and
hazards. Where contaminants are present in both forms, the
nominal protection factor must be established for each one
• Does the atmosphere contain enough oxygen? (see local
separately. For the selection of ﬁ ltering devices, the higher one
• Is additional protective equipment required?
It should be borne in mind that the performance predicted by
1. Calculation of the protection factor necessary1
the Nominal Protection Factor can only be expected of a res-piratory protective device which is correctly worn and which
The selection of the most suitable type of equipment for particu-
has been properly maintained. When a face-piece is available
lar circumstances requires understanding of the hazard against
in more than one size, it is important the best ﬁ t for the in-
which protection is required as well as an understanding of the
dividual is worn. Facial hair, when present between the face
limits of protection of the equipment available. It is necessary
and face-piece seal will substantially increase the leakage with
to both the concentration and occupational exposure limits of
harmful contaminants that are likely to be encountered in air. An OEL is the concentration of an airborne substance, aver-aged over a reference period, at which, according to current
knowledge, there is no evidence that it is likely to be injurious
to employees if they are exposed by inhalation, day after day,
Particle ﬁ ltering devices
How to calculate the protection factor required?
The minimum protection factor required is:
Gas ﬁ ltering devices
As an aid to the selection of respiratory protective equipment, the term “Nominal Protection Factor” has been introduced into these guidelines for each type of equipment. The NPF is derived from the maximum permitted
inward leakage (%) of the whole device stated in certain standards, or the
4)special guidelines according to local regulation apply
inward leakage ﬁ gures from the relevant standards of different components.
Nominal Protection factor is deﬁ ned as, NPF = 1/PIL x 100, where PIL = permitted total inward leakage (%).
What is the NPF of a ﬁ ltering half mask, permit-
ted total inward leakage = 22%
Nominal protection factor = 1/permitted total
inward leakage = 1/22 x 100 = 4.53
A ﬁ lter with the above mentioned colour code is suitable for:
gases and vapours of organic compounds with a boiling
point greater than 6500C covered by ﬁ lter class 2 and;
2. Selection of the ﬁ lter
inorganic gases and vapours e.g chlorine, hydrogen sul-phide, hydrogen cyanide up to concentrations covered by
Contaminants are encountered in different forms, presenting
particles up to concentrations covered by ﬁ lter class 3
either a particulate or gaseous hazard, and therefore different ﬁ lters are required to protect against particles, speciﬁ c gases,
or a combination of both. A particulate hazard may include
dusts, ﬁ bres, fumes, mists or micro-organisms. A gaseous
hazard may consist of gases or vapours. It is important that
the appropriate type of ﬁ lter is selected for the form of con-
The following table shows the colour coding of respiratory ﬁ l-
Colour code Filter Main ﬁ eld of application
3.1. Do not use any ﬁ ltering respirator:
in oxygen deﬁ cient atmosphere (see local legislation);
In poorly ventilated areas, or in conﬁ ned spaces such as
tanks, small rooms, tunnels or vessels (unless the con-
Reac- Radioactive iodine4 including radio-
ﬁ ned space is well ventilated and the concentration of
toxic contaminants is known to be below the upper limit recommended for the respirator);
in atmospheres where the concentrations of toxic con-
taminants are unknown or are an immediate hazard to life
or produce an immediate irreversible debilitating effect on health;
at concentrations of hazards greater than the ﬁ lter class
capacity as stated on the respirator label.
if a substance has poor warning properties, like odour,
taste or irritation such as Aniline, Benzene, Carbon Mon-
3.2. Immediately leave the area and then remove the respira
you sense irritation, smell or taste contaminants;
there are no harmful particulate substances (i.e. dusts,
mists or fumes) present when only gas/vapour ﬁ lters are
ﬁ tted to the respirator and no harmful gase/vapours are
present when only particulate ﬁ lters are ﬁ tted;
the respirator selected properly ﬁ ts the wearer.
4. Filter Life
The period of use of a respiratory ﬁ lter depends on its size
(class) and on the conditions of use. Air consumption by the
user, air humidity, air temperature and the concentrations and combinations of the toxic substances involved all inﬂ uence the
life time of the ﬁ lter. For this reason, a precise period of use can
only be speciﬁ ed if all these factors are known in advance. Gas
ﬁ lters generally show the user that their capacity is exhausted
by way of a perceptible odour. Further use will certainly result
in irritation of the mucous membranes. For safety reasons,
ﬁ lters and special ﬁ lters used to protect against odourless gases must be replaced according to the special guidelines
Continual loading of particulate ﬁ lters causes them to clog up
and the breathing resistance increases noticeably. The user
can then leave the danger area at the correct time. Depending on the mixture of toxic substances, combined ﬁ lters indicate
that their capacity is becoming exhausted, either by an odour,
or by increased breathing resistance.
5. Filter recommendation
Please note the nomenclature for the ﬁ lter recommendations are as follows:
Gas ﬁ lter or particle ﬁ lter required; if the substance
is also present in particulate of gaseous matter, a
combined ﬁ lter (A-P) is required, e.g. 1-octene.
5)SCBA - Self controlled breathing apparatus
Publikationsverzeichnis / List of publications Dr. med. Katharina Erb-Zohar Originalarbeiten / Original publications 1. Kleinbloesem CH, Erb K, Essig J, Breithaupt K, Belz GG. Haemodynamic and hormonal effects of cilazapril in comparison with propranolol in healthy subjects and in hypertensive patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989;27(Suppl.):S309-S315. Belz GG, Essig J, Erb K, Breit
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