Microsoft word - hbioa2.doc

- Be familiar with the male and female reproductive systems in sufficient detail to understand: - the structure of the seminiferous tubules and ovaries - the roles of mitosis and meiosis in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, emphasizing differences - Understand the importance of copulation and fertilisation – capacitation, acrosome reaction, formation of second polar body, fusion of nuclei and formation of a fertilisation membrane; formation of the blastocyst and its implantation; development of the placenta – its structure and role in transfer of material between embryo and mother. - Understand the processes of birth and lactation - Describe the hormonal control of reproduction in females, including the role of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle - Describe the role of hCG and progesterone in maintaining a pregnancy - Describe the role of progesterone and oxytocin concentrations in initiating labour - Describe the role of oxytocin and prolactin in milk production, including positive feedback controlling the secretion of oxytocin - Understand the role of hormones in contraception - Know condoms, IUD, cap and ‘morning after’ pills as examples of birth control mechanisms - Be able to discuss the ethical and moral issues relating to the use of different forms of contraception - Be able to evaluate evidence about the benefits and risks associated with different forms of contraception - Know that low sperm count and blocked oviducts are causes of infertility - Describe the use of IVF to treat women with blocked oviducts, to include the use of FSH to stimulate multiple ovulation; removal of the oocytes from the oviducts; fertilisation; culture to the 8-16 cell stage; and reimplantation of some of the embryos - Be able to discuss the ethical and moral issues associated with IVF, including the fate of embryos that are not implanted; their possible use in scientific experiments; and the extent to which IVF should be available Growing up, growing old
- Be able to describe the pattern of growth of the whole body, reproductive organs and brain from infancy to childhood - Be able to describe puberty and the development of secondary sex characteristics in males and - Explain the decline in physiological functions with age, to include basal metabolic rate (BMR); cardiac output; nerve conduction velocity; female reproductive capacity as a result of changes in concentrations of pituitary and ovarian hormones - Understand that cancer and Alzheimer’s disease are associated with old age - Be able to discuss the issues facing society in terms of the increasing numbers of elderly people in the population and treating diseases associated with old age - Be aware that many conditions needing treatment, or with the potential to need treatment, are inherited - Understand the meaning of the terms gene, allele, genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous - Understand that cystic fibrosis is an example of monohybrid inheritance, that sickle cell anaemia is an example of co-dominant alleles; that ABO blood groups are an example of inheritance involving multiple alleles - Understand the Rhesus blood groups, and the potential dangers to a rhesus negative mother giving birth to rhesus positive babies - Be able to give reasons why experimental results may only approximate to Mendelian ratios - Be able to apply the chi squared test to establish the significance of any differences from predicted ratios - Know the role of a genetic counsellor - Explain how information from family history and genetic screening can be used to advise parents - Understand the screening of embryos - Be able to consider the ethical and moral issues relating to genetic counselling - Understand the roles of the X and Y chromosomes in determining gender - Know that Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a sex linked condition - Be able to explain why sex linked conditions are rare in women - Understand that ABO blood groups are an example of discontinuous variation - Understand that features showing continuous variation are often polygenic. They often produce a normal distribution, which can be described in terms of mean and standard deviation. - Understand the meaning of mode and median - Be able to evaluate evidence about possible genetic predisposition to develop a disease or disorder - Understand that gene mutation produces new alleles - Be able to explain how deletion and substitution are causes of point mutations Understand that, in meiosis, crossing over and independent assortment lead to new combinations of alleles - Be able to explain how random fertilisation leads to new combinations of alleles - Understand that genes interact with the environment to produce the phenotype - Be able to describe Prader-Willi syndrome and how it produces heritable changes in gene function or cell phenotype without changes in the genotype - Be able to evaluate evidence for the relative influences of genetic and environmental factors on phenotype The management
-Be able to explain that the genetic code is a triplet, universal, non-overlapping and degenerate code structure of cells
- Be able to describe protein synthesis, to include the transcription of DNA, processing of mRNA, and the roles of mRNA, tRNA and ribosomes in translation - Understand that the protein formed could be an enzyme, a receptor or a structural protein - Be able to understand that transcription of specific genes is regulated - Be able to explain that some substances bind to receptor molecules inside the cytoplasm, using the steroid hormone testosterone as an example of how it forms a complex with its receptor that initiates transcription - Be able to explain how increased methylation of the DNA or decreased acetylation of associated histones represses transcription - Understand that gene mutation can lead to the formation of a non-functional protein, using the CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis as an example - Be able to recall the differences between benign and malignant tumours from their AS study - Be able to explain the role of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in controlling the cell cycle - Be able to explain how abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes can lead to the development of tumours - Be able to explain that increased oestrogen concentrations are involved in the development of some breast cancers - Be able to evaluate evidence showing correlations between environmental factors and various forms of cancer - Be able to explain that a correlation does not prove a causal link, and that further experimental investigation is required to establish any causal link - Understand that enzymes coded for by DNA control cellular reactions - Be able to explain how the end-product of a series of reactions can influence the reaction by inhibiting the enzyme, or repressing transcription of a gene. New genes for old
- Be able to explain how recombinant DNA is produced - Be able to explain the use of gene probes - Be able to explain how genes may be isolated by making the gene in a ‘gene machine’; creating the gene from mRNA; or using restriction enzymes to cut the gene from DNA - Be able to explain how sticky ends are produced - Be able to explain how the polymerase chain reaction produces larger quantities of DNA - Understand how recombinant DNA is transferred, including the role of plasmids as vectors; ligases; and genetic markers to identify genetically modified organisms - Understand the role of gene libraries - Be able to evaluate whether selective breeding is ethically different from the use of modern gene - Be able to describe how selective breeding programmes have been used to create new strains and species of crop plants - Be able to describe the use of gene technology in producing GM organisms, to include herbicide- resistant crop plants and cattle with high milk yields - Be able to discuss moral and ethical issues relating to the production of GM organisms, to include ownership of genes; ownership of the modified organisms; and financial benefits - Be able to evaluate the concept of sanctity of the species - Know that the human genome has been sequenced - Be aware that the DNA nucleotide sequences have been determined, but this does not translate into a list of genes coding for proteins because there is non-coding DNA and there are regulatory genes - Be aware that determining the genome of simpler organisms allows the proteome of the organism to be determined, and that this may allow vaccines to be produced against pathogens - Understand the work of the Sanger Institute in producing a vaccine against Plasmodium Drugs can affect how we
- Be able to describe the structure of myelinated sensory and motor neurones - Understand the role of the neurone membrane in maintaining a resting potential; initiating an action perceive the world around us
potential and its all-or-nothing nature; and the passage of an action potential along non-myelinated and myelinated axons resulting in nerve impulses - Understand the nature and importance of the refractory period in producing discrete nerve impulses - Understand the relationship between intensity of stimulation, size of generator potential and frequency of action potentials - Be able to describe the structure of a synapse as revealed by the electron microscope - Be able to describe the sequence of events involved in the action of a cholinergic synapse and a neuromuscular junction - Be able to describe the effect of drugs on a synapse - Be able to predict and explain the effects of specific drugs on a synapse, when provided with information - Be able to understand the functioning of the nervous system, in order to appreciate the processes between sensation, the detection of stimuli, and perception due to processing and interpretation by the brain - Be able to use their knowledge of the functioning of the nervous system to explain how drugs can influence the functioning of the brain and so affect mood and perception of reality - Be able to explain that LSD and cocaine affect the actions of monoamine transmitters; marijuana binds to THC receptors, and nicotine binds to nicotinic receptors in the brain and sympathetic ganglia Detecting light
- Be able to describe the structure of a human eye and its transmissive and refractive properties in focusing an image on the retina - Be able to explain the role of rod cells and cone cells in effecting monochromatic and trichromatic - Understand that the absorption of light by rhodopsin produces a chemical change leading to the creation of a generator potential (details of hyperpolarisation are not required) - Be able to explain how the connections between sensory cells and the neurones of the optic nerve allow sensitivity and acuity of vision - Describe how the nerve pathways from the eye to the brain (optic nerve, optic chiasma, lateral geniculate nucleus, visual cortex) demonstrate lateralisation and localisation of function in the brain - Understand the role of the brain in visual perception - Understand, in outline, the ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ theories of visual perception - Be able to predict and explain the effects of specific drugs on perception, when provided with information Fight or flight
- Understand that the nervous and hormonal systems work together to produce coordinated responses to stimuli which we perceive as threatening or frightening - Be able to explain the roles of the hypothalamus, sympathetic nervous system and adrenal gland in ringing about the fight or flight response - Be able to compare nervous and hormonal coordination, and appreciate why hormonal control (especially steroid hormone control) takes longer than nervous control - Understand that stimuli perceived by the brain can lead to hormonal changes that produce - Understand the role of the hypothalamus in mediating such responses - Be able to describe the general role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system and their antagonistic effects - Be able to explain how the hypothalamus receives input from the cerebral cortex; and sends impulses via the sympathetic nervous system to effectors, which may be muscles or glands (as exemplified by the - Be able to describe how information is transferred by hormones released by endocrine glands which affect the physiological activities of target cells - Be able to describe the physiological actions of adrenaline - Be able to describe movement and maintenance of posture in terms of antagonistic muscle action - Understand the gross and microscopic structure of skeletal muscle, and the ultrastructure of a myofibril - Be able to explain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction - Be able to describe the roles of actin, myosin, calcium ions and ATP in muscle contraction - Understand that muscles are effectors - Be able to describe the structure, location and general properties of slow and fast skeletal muscle fibres Homeostasis
- Understand that physiological control systems operate in humans to maintain the internal environment within restricted limits. This is homeostasis. - Understand the principle of negative feedback and its role in restoring systems to their original levels - Understand that hypothermia is a condition in which body temperature falls below 35oC and normal - Be able to explain the normal processes involved in thermoregulation in a mammal, including the role of thermoreceptors in the skin and hypothalamus - Be able to describe the role of positive feedback as temperature continues to fall - Be able to describe the regulation of blood glucose - Understand the factors which influence blood glucose concentration - Understand the role of hormones in activating enzymes involved in the inter-conversion of glucose and glycogen - Understand the role of insulin and glucagon in controlling blood glucose - Understand the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and how they may be controlled by insulin, changes of diet and lifestyle - Be aware of the health implications of undiagnosed or untreated diabetes - Be able to evaluate evidence showing correlations between life-style and the incidence of diabetes Human impacts on evolution
- Know that evolution involves a change in the allele frequency in a population - Understand that individuals in a population of a species show variation - Understand that phenotypic variation is due to genetic factors, differences in environmental factors or a combination of both - Understand that competition results in differential survival and reproduction - Understand that selection acts on populations - Explain how organisms with a selective advantage are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass on their genes to the next generation - Understand that selection may result in changes in the allele and phenotype frequency in a population - Be able to describe how reproductive isolation of populations can occur - Be able to explain how new species form by allopatric and sympatric speciation - Understand that human activities have altered and are altering the environment of many organisms, and that this changes the selection acting on populations. This may affect the evolution of populations and species. People change communities.
- Understand that humans have introduced species of plants and animals into this country. This has affected the stability of populations of native species, the communities they are part of and the ecosystems they live in - Explain that an ecosystem comprises living organisms and the physical and chemical factors that make up their environment - Understand that a population is all the organisms of one species in a habitat - Understand that populations of different species form communities. These communities are found in a particular habitat and are based on dynamic feeding relationships. - Understand that, within a habitat, a species occupies a niche governed by adaptation to food availability and/or prevailing abiotic conditions - Understand that an ecosystem supports a certain size of population of any one species. This population size may vary as a result of the effect of abiotic factors; interactions between organisms; inter- and intra-specific competition; predation. - Understand that humans have introduced species of plants and animals into this country. This has affected the stability of populations of native species, the communities they are part of and the ecosystems they live in. - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements between meeting human demands and the need to conserve the environment. - Explain that domesticated and introduced plants and animals affect natural ecosystems through competition with native species - Be able to describe the effects of domestic cats, grey squirrels and Japanese knotweed - Understand that the growth of the urban environment has increased the habitat and niches for foxes, rats, pigeons and other species of wildlife - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate the cost implications of controlling introduced species. - Understand the meaning of Environmental Impact Assessment - Understand the impact on communities and ecosystems of the large-scale introduction of genetically modified organisms, as exemplified by soya and maize - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements between the need to meet the demands for certain crops and the need to conserve the environment. Humans’ health can be
- Understand that there have been changes in our diet affected when they change
- Know that vegetable oils are one of the plant products for which there has been a large increase in their environment
- Understand that these changes have been linked to increases in a range of allergies: nut allergy and - When supplied with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements about meeting demands for certain crops and the impact on human health and well-being - Understand that allergic responses produce illness, and that allergens are antigens that produce an abnormal immune response - Understand the concept of hypersensitivity, limited to hay fever, food allergies, allergic asthma and hives as examples of reactions involving histamine production - Understand that the allergen leads to production of IgE antibody by B cells - Know that IgE binds to mast cells, which produce histamine when exposed to the allergen, and that histamine leads to symptoms of allergy - Understand that anaphylaxis is a sudden, acute reaction to an allergen. It can involve oedema in the airways leading to the lungs, or a large and sudden fall in blood pressure - Show knowledge of skin tests for allergies, the use of antihistamine to treat allergies and adrenaline to - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements about the claims of links between air pollution and respiratory illnesses, including asthma - Understand that pollution of water by human activities can lead to illness - Understand that coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci can be indicators of pollution by human sewage - Understand that Blue Flag beaches meet a water quality test - Understand that Cryptosporidium is a single-celled parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis. A resistant form, the oocyst, is present in the faeces of infected animals and humans, and can infect a new host. - Know that pollution of water can occur from slurries from infected farm animals. Sewage discharged into rivers used for drinking water abstraction can carry oocysts released by infected humans - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate the cost implications of controlling water pollution Human activities
- Understand that ecosystems are dynamic systems, usually moving from colonisation to climax can damage ecosystems
communities in a process known as succession and create new ones
- Understand that communities change with time, because of the interaction between species and their environment. At each stage certain species change the environment so that it becomes more suitable - Understand that human activities often produce bare areas of land and water - Know that wasteland is unmanaged land with vegetation in the early stages of succession. Wasteland includes corridor habitat, such as cuttings and embankments associated with railway tracks and - Know that brown-field sites are sites which have previously been developed for human use. These sites can be reclaimed to provide habitats for flora and fauna, as exemplified by species in decline because of urbanisation and intensive agriculture - Understand that ecosystems range in size from the very small to the very large - Understand that increasing area by a factor of ten approximately doubles the number of species present - Understand that larger sites are important in enhancing biodiversity in the urban environment - Understand that corridor habitats are important because they are common in the built environment and allow for the movement of plants and animals between habitats - Be able to describe one example of the habitats on wasteland or a brown field site - Be able to describe techniques used to measure the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem - Understand the meaning of Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) as applied to waste management - Understand that the BPEO is the option which provides the most benefit or least damage to the environment as a whole, at an acceptable cost in both the long and the short term - Understand the waste hierarchy: waste should be prevented or reduced at source; waste materials should be re-used; waste materials should be recycled and used as a raw material; waste that cannot be re-used should be used as a substitute for non-renewable energy sources; and only waste that cannot be treated in any of the above ways should go to landfill - Understand that microorganisms decompose organic remains - Know that anaerobic bacteria produce methane in landfill sites, which can be collected and used as fuel - Understand the Polluter Pays principle: the polluter pays for the direct and indirect environmental consequences of their actions - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate all the cost implications of pollution. Plants can reduce the impact
- Understand that the carbon footprint is a measure of the impact that human activities have on the of the use of fossil fuels on
amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in terms of kilograms of carbon dioxide produced per climate change
year - Be able to describe how their primary contributions are calculated; how their secondary contributions are calculated; how household contributions can be reduced; and how carbon emissions can be off-set - Understand that the burning of fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases - Understand that the climate of the United Kingdom is getting warmer, which affects the distribution of - Be able to describe the effects of climate warming on the natural range of species; breeding seasons; and the availability of food for some species at key times - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence of links between climate warming and changes in populations of species in the UK - Understand that photosynthesis is the major route by which energy enters an ecosystem - Know that energy is transferred through the trophic levels in food chains and food webs and is dissipated - Be able to consider quantitatively the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels - Understand that, in photosynthesis, energy is transferred to produce ATP and reduced NADP in the light independent stage. ATP and reduced NADP are then used during the light independent stage to incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars - Understand that ATP synthesis is associated with the electron transfer chains in the membranes of chloroplasts (Details of electron transport and biochemical pathways are not required) - Explain how tree-planting is used to off-set carbon emissions, and that carbon is sequestered in the biomass of trees. - Know that biofuels are renewable energy sources: biomass from fast-growing plants, used as fuel for burning; vegetable oils used as diesel substitute; and ethanol from the fermentation of plant material, used as a petrol substitute or additive - Understand that the plants used have to be grown on a very large scale to produce significant reductions in the use of fossil fuels. This will have impacts on the environment, and also affect the availability of food for human consumption - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate the environmental and social impacts - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate the impact of the use of biofuels on national and global carbon dioxide emissions - Understand that ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes, and that all cells and organisms respire - Know that, in respiration glycolysis is anaerobic and takes place in the cytoplasm; the remaining steps take place in the mitochondria; - ATP synthesis takes place in the membranes of mitochondria; oxygen is the final electron acceptor; and that carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic respiration. - Understand that ecosystems range in size from the very large to the very small and their microorganisms
- Know that the human body supports populations of bacteria and fungi - Understand that these microorganisms carry out extracellular digestion of biological molecules; absorb the products of digestion; and use these for their own metabolism. This can recycle chemical elements - Know that human skin supports a community of many microorganisms including Staphylococci, Micrococci, Corynebacterium and fungi, such as yeast. - Explain that a number of skin conditions are caused by bacteria - Know that acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes growing in and near sebaceous glands in the skin - Understand that antiseptics and antibiotics can be used to control the populations of these bacteria - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements between the claims of makers of different ‘spot creams’ and antibacterial soaps - Be able to analyse and interpret experimental evidence from microbial growth investigations. - Understand that the human gut supports populations of bacterial species which forma bacterial community - Understand that human actions can change this community and adversely affect the functioning of the gut - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence and make balanced judgements about ‘probiotic’ foods - Understand that humans have introduced large amounts of antibacterial agents into the environment of bacteria - Be able to explain that bacteria can evolve resistance to antibacterial agents, using MRSA as an example - When provided with appropriate information, be able to evaluate evidence relating to the impact of the widespread use of antibacterial agents - Research alternative to antibiotics, e.g. bacteriophage treatment



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Sehr geehrte Patientin, sehr geehrter Patient,bei Ihnen werden Beschwerden einer Analfissurbehandelt. Analfissuren haben nichts mit Krebs zu tun! Der sehr Was ist eine Analfissur? seltene Analkrebs kann aber gelegentlich wie eine FissurÜbersetzt heißt „Fissur“ Riss. Der bei der proktologischenaussehen und wird dann oftmals lange Zeit nicht alsUntersuchung festgestellte Defekt sieht a

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