17 Baby Related Illnesses
While many parents are familiar with the 30 Critical Illnesses, many are not aware that their child must be protected with the 17 Child Related Illnesses as well. In the unfortunate event of your child’s changing health needs, you want to know that you can concentrate on being the centre of your child’s world, without worrying about how you will manage financially.
1. Severe Asthma
Asthma is a very common chronic disease involving the respiratory system in which the airways constrict, become inflamed, and are lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers. These episodes may be triggered by such things as exposure to an environmental stimulant such as an allergen, environmental tobacco smoke, cold or warm air, perfume, pet dander, moist air, exercise or exertion, or emotional stress. In children, the most common triggers are viral illnesses such as those that cause the common cold. This airway narrowing causes symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. The airway constriction responds to bronchodilators. Between episodes, most patients feel well but can have mild symptoms and they may remain short of breath after exercise for longer periods of time than the unaffected individual. The symptoms of asthma, which can range from mild to life threatening, can usually be controlled with a combination of drugs and environmental changes.
2. Severe Epilepsy
When nerve cells in the brain fire electrical impulses at a rate of up to four times higher than normal, this causes a sort of electrical storm in the brain, known as a seizure. A pattern of repeated seizures is referred to as epilepsy. Known causes include head injuries, brain tumors, lead poisoning, mal-development of the brain, genetic and infectious illnesses. But in fully half of cases, no cause can be found. Medication controls seizures for the majority of patients.
Leukemia is a type of cancer. Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is cancer that begins in blood cells. Blood cells form in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft material in the center of most bones. In people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. At first, leukemia cells function almost normally. In time, they may crowd out normal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This makes it hard for blood to do its work. The types of leukemia are grouped by how quickly the disease develops and gets worse. Leukemia is either chronic (gets worse slowly) or acute (gets worse quickly)
Chronic leukemia—Early in the disease, the abnormal blood cells can still do their work, and people with chronic leukemia may not have any symptoms. Slowly, chronic leukemia gets worse. It causes symptoms as the number of leukemia cells in the blood rises. Acute leukemia—The blood cells are very abnormal. They cannot carry out their normal work. The number of abnormal cells increases rapidly. Acute leukemia worsens quickly. 4. Bone Marrow Transplant
A procedure in which bone marrow that is diseased or damaged is replaced with healthy bone marrow. The bone marrow to be replaced may be deliberately destroyed by high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The replacement marrow may be the patient's own marrow or it may come from another person. If the marrow comes from the patient, it is called an autologous bone marrow transplant. If the marrow is from an identical twin, it is termed a syngeneic transplant. And if the marrow is from a donor who is not an identical twin, the procedure is an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Most bone marrow transplants today are allogeneic.
5. Kawasaki Disease with Heart Complications
Kawasaki disease is a syndrome of unknown cause that mainly strikes young children. Signs of the disease include fever and redness of the eyes, hands, feet, mouth, and tongue. The disease can be treated with high doses of aspirin (salicylic acid) and gamma globulin. Kawasaki disease usually resolves on its own within a month or two. Some children with Kawasaki disease suffer damage to the coronary arteries. Because of the potential for heart injury and coronary aneurysms, special tests are performed to examine the heart. Children are typically evaluated with an electrocardiogram (EKG) and an ultrasound test of the heart (echocardiogram). Other arteries that can become inflamed include the arteries of the lungs, neck, and abdomen. These effects can lead to breathing problems, headaches, and pain in the belly, respectively.
6. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin causes diabetes.
The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst and hunger as well as fatigue.
Diabetes is diagnosed by blood sugar (glucose) testing. The major complications of diabetes are both acute and chronic.
Acutely: dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications may occur. Chronically: disease of the blood vessels (both small and large) which can damage the eye, kidneys, nerves, and heart may occur.
Diabetes treatment depends on the type and severity of the diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
A group of inherited bleeding disorders in which the ability of blood to clot is impaired. Hemophilia A: Classic hemophilia, due to profound deficiency of factor VIII, a blood factor necessary to normal clotting. The hemophilia A gene is on the X chromosome, so females carry the gene. Each son of a female carrier stands a 50% chance of receiving the gene and having hemophilia. Treatment is by blood products that introduce clotting factor and replace lost blood. However, use of contaminated blood products exposed many people with hemophilia to HIV infection in the 1980s. Hemophilia A has affected the Russian royal house and other descendants of Queen Victoria. Hemophilia B: Hemophilia due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX in the blood which results in prolonged oozing after minor and major injuries, tooth extractions, or surgery. There is renewed bleeding after the initial bleeding has stopped. The gene for hemophilia B gene is on the X chromosome, so males are affected and females carry the gene. About 10% of carrier females are at risk for bleeding. Each son of a female carrier stands a 50 percent chance of receiving the gene and having hemophilia B. Treatment is by blood products that introduce clotting factor IX and replace lost blood. Hemophilia B is also called Christmas disease (so-named for the first patient studied in detail with the disease). 8. Rheumatic Fever with Heart Involvement
An illness that occurs following a streptococcus infection (such as a "strep throat") or scarlet fever and predominantly affects children. Symptoms include fever, pain in the joints, nausea, stomach cramps, and vomiting. Rheumatic fever can cause long-lasting effects in the skin, joints, heart, and brain. The diagnosis of rheumatic fever is made by history and observation. A blood marker has recently been found for rheumatic fever, but a test is not yet commercially available. Treatment is usually by prophylactic antibiotics, as recurrence is common and can cause further damage to body tissues.
9. Acquired Brain Damage 10. Still’s Disease (Including Severe Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Still's Disease is a form of arthritis that is characterized by high spiking fevers and evanescent (transient) salmon-colored rash . Still's disease was first described in children, but it is now known to occur, much less commonly, in adults (in whom it is referred to as adult-onset Still's disease). Still's disease is one type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and is also known as systemic-onset JRA. By "systemic" it is meant that along with joint inflammation it typically begins with symptoms and signs of systemic (body wide) illness, such as high fevers, gland swelling, and internal organ involvement. Still's disease is named after the English physician Sir George F. Still (1861-1941).
Also known as glomerular nephritis, it is a renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. It may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood
resp. protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute renal failure, or chronic renal failure. They are categorised into several different pathological patterns, which are broadly grouped into non-proliferative or proliferative types. Diagnosing the pattern it is important because the outcome and treatment differs in different types. Primary causes are ones which are intrinsic to the kidney, whilst secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders (SLE, vasculitis) or cancers.
12. Brain Surgery 13. Loss of Limbs 14. Aplastic Anemia
Anemia due to failure of the bone marrow to produce blood cells, including red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Aplastic anemia frequently occurs without a known cause. Known causes include exposure to chemicals (benzene, toluene in glues, insecticides, solvents), drugs (chemotherapy, gold, seizure medications, antibiotics, and others), viruses (HIV, Epstein-Barr), radiation, immune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), pregnancy, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and inherited disorders (Fanconi's anemia). Symptoms of aplastic anemia include fatigue, bruising, bleeding, shortness of breath, fever, chills, and less frequently, bone pain. The diagnosis is based on the presence of low red and white blood cell and platelet counts and a decrease in the normal cells of the bone marrow. Treatment depends on the suspected cause of the condition. All medications which might suppress the bone marrow are discontinued. Male hormone (androgens) may be given to stimulate the suppressed bone marrow to become more active. Bone marrow stimulating factors may be given intravenously. Blood transfusions are often required. Precautions to avoid infections are taken when the white blood cell counts are severely lowered. Bone marrow transplantation may be considered. Suppression of the immune system may be indicated. Immunosuppression therapy can include antithymocyte globulin, cortisone medications, and cyclosporine. Treatment with antithymocyte globulin has been successful for some patients and permitted them to make sufficient blood cells to stay transfusion-free for 5 years or more.
15. Viral Encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain as a result of virus infection. There are many viruses that cause viral encephalitis.
16. Tuberculous Meningitis
Meningitis due to tuberculosis. Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe form of tuberculosis. It causes severe neurologic deficits or death in more than half of cases. The pattern of tuberculous meningitis in the population is different in different areas of the world. In areas with much tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis usually affects young children. It develops typically 3 to 6 months after the primary tuberculosis infection. By contrast, in areas with less tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis tends to strike adults. It may follow a primary infection but, more
frequently, is due to reactivation of an old focus of tuberculosis that had been dormant, sometimes for many years. Tuberculois meningitis begins insidiously with a gradual fluctuating fever, fatigue, weight loss, behavior changes, headache, and vomiting. This early phase is followed by neurologic deficits, loss of consciousness, or convulsions. A dense gelatinous exudate (outpouring) forms and envelops the brain arteries and cranial nerves. It creates a bottleneck in the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid, which leads to hydrocephalus. The development of arteritis and infarctions of the brain can cause hemiplegia or quadriplegia. A high index of suspicion is essential to diagnose the disease because early diagnosis is the key to a satisfactory outcome. If tuberculous meningitis is seriously suspected, treatment should start immediately. Treatment involves chemotherapy to control and eradicate the infection, management of hydrocephalus and elevated intracranial pressure, and immunomodulation with corticosteroids (cortisone-like drugs such as prednisone). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a two-month intensive course of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by 4 months of isoniazid and rifampin. Elevated intracranial pressure can be life-threatening. The hydrocephalus may require placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The use of the corticosteroid dexamethasone improves survival in patients over 14 years of age but probably does not prevent severe disability.
17. Death as a result of Hand Foot Mouth Disease
A viral syndrome with a rash on the hands and feet and in the mouth. The internal rash (the enanthem) consists of blisters and little ulcers that may involve not only the lining of the mouth but also the gums, palate, and tongue. The external rash on the body (the exanthem) typically affects the hands (most commonly), feet and, sometimes, the buttocks. There may also be sore throat, irritability, decreased appetite, and fever. The disease is caused by various viruses, including several types of coxackievirus-coxsackieviruses A16 (most often), A5, A9, A10, B1 and B3, and enterovirus 71. The incubation period is short, on the order of 4 to 6 days. The disease is most frequent in summer and fall. The rate of clinical expression in hand-foot-and-mouth disease is high with the enanthem-exanthem pattern evident in nearly 100% of preschoolers, nearly 40% of school-age children and about 10% of adults. The illness is characteristically self-limited and is usually over and done within a week when due to its most common cause: coxsackievirus A16. In outbreaks due to enterovirus 71, the illness may be more severe with complications such as viral meningitis and encephalitis and paralytic disease. However, hand-foot-and-mouth disease as a rule tends fortunately to be mild and self-limited. The condition was first reported in 1956 in Australia and by the early 60s had emerged as a common childhood illness around the world. It is also called hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome. The hyphens are sometimes dropped and it is termed hand, foot, and mouth disease or syndrome
Expert’s Recommendation for Protection
1. Lump Sum Cash Benefit ($25,000 - $100,000 upon diagnosis) 2. Weekly Tuition Benefit ($50 - $500 for up to 13 weeks) 3. Recuperation Benefit ($50 - $500) 4. Hospital Expense Benefit (As Charged) 5. Daily Hospital Income Benefit ($50 per day) 6. Payor Benefit (Waiver all future premium)
Expert’s Recommended Monthly Premium
From $11 to $45 per month, depending of plan selected
www .psicologia.com.pt Document o produzido em 11-01-2009 O DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL E O PROCESSO DE DESMEDICALIZAÇÃO: PRÁTICAS DE ACOLHIMENTO PSICOLÓGICO A PACIENTES PSICÓTICOS EM TRATAMENTO Giane Alves de Melo Assis Cunha Contactos: Este artigo convida o leitor a uma reflexão, a respeito da desmedicalização de pacientes psicóticos em tratamento ps
Cardiología ABCDE en urgencias extrahospitalarias CRISIS HIPERTENSIVAS DEFINICIÓN Aumento brusco de la tensión arterial, usualmente con una TAD>120 mmHg y/o unaTAS>210. Por lo general afectan a pacientes previamente diagnosticados deHipertensión arterial (HTA), pero también se pueden presentar en pacientes normo-tensos. Se dividen en Emergencias y Urgencias. 1. Emergenci